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Wednesday, 24 October 2012

પોલીઓ : ૨૦૧૪ સુધીમાં ભારત પોલીઓ મુક્ત થવાની પુરી શક્યતા છે.


પોલીઓ : ૨૦૧૪ સુધીમાં ભારત પોલીઓ મુક્ત થવાની પુરી શક્યતા છે.

બુધવાર ૨૩.૧૦.૨૦૧ના વિશ્ર્વ પોલીઓ ઉન્મુલન દીવસ મનાવવામાં આવશે. 

દુનીયામાં ૧૯૮૮માં  ૩,૫૦,૦૦૦ પોલીઓના કેસ નોંધાયેલ, ૨૦૦૧માં પોલીઓના ૪૮૩ કેસ  નોંધાયેલ અને ૨૦૦૯માં પોલીઓના ૧૬૦૬ કેસ નોંધાયેલ.

૧૯૭૮ પછી ભારતમાં પોલીઓ વીરુદ્ધ જુંબેશ શરુ થઈ અને ૨૦૦૬માં ભારતમાં ૬૬૦ કેસ નોંધાયેલ.

જાન્યુઆરી ૨૦૧૧માં પશ્ર્વીમ બંગાળના હાવડા જીલ્લામાં પોલીઓનો છેલ્લો કેસ નોંધાવવામાં આવેલ છે.

૨૦૧૪ સુધીમાં કોઈ કેસ નહીં દેખાય તો પોલીઓ ગ્રસ્ત દેશોની યાદીમાંથી ભારતનું નામ હટાવી દેવામાં આવશે.

પોલીઓ ગ્રસ્ત દેશોની યાદીમાંથી ભારતનું નામ હટે તો એના પછી નાઈજેરીઆ, પાકીસ્તાન અને અફઘાનીસ્તાનનો વારો આવશે.

એડવર્ડ જેનરે શીતળાની રસી તૈયાર કરી અને આસ્તે આસ્તે આખી દુનીયામાંથી શીતળા નાબુદ થઈ ગઈ. ભારતમાં છેલ્લે ૧૯૭૯માં શીતળાનો કેસ નોંધાયેલ.

૧૯૧૦ થી ૧૯૭૫ વચ્ચે ઘણાં દેશોના નીસ્ણાતોએ સંશોધન કરી પોલીઓને નાબુદ કરવા કમર કસી. 
૧૯૫૫ પછી આશા બંધાણી કે પોલીઓ નાબુદ થવાની શક્યતા છે.

૨૦૧૨ સુધીમાં દુનીયામાં બે કરોડ લોકો એવા હસે જેમને પોલીઓ થયો હસે અને પોલીઓની અસરમાં આજે જીવતા હસે.

અમેરીકામાં ૧૯૯૪ પછી પોલીઓ દેખાયો નથી.

ચીન અને ઓસ્ટ્રેલીયામાં ૨૦૦૦ પછી પોલીઓના કેસની કોઈ નોંધ નથી. 

યુરોપમાં ૨૦૦૨ પછી પોલીઓનો કોઈ કેસ નોંધાયેલ નથી.


9 comments:

  1. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/india/2012/01/120112_polio_free_india_sy.shtml

    पिछले साल 13 जनवरी, 2011 के दिन पश्चिम बंगाल में एक दो साल की बच्ची को पोलियो से ग्रस्त पाया गया था.

    स्वास्थ्य मंत्री गुलाम नबी आज़ाद ने कहा, “हम बेहद उत्साहित और आशान्वित हैं, लेकिन इसके साथ ही हमें सतर्क भी रहना होगा.”

    उनका कहना था कि पोलियो उन्मूलन की मुहिम की ये एक अहम कड़ी है क्योंकि 2009 में भारत में पोलियो के 741 मामले दर्ज थे, जो कि वैश्विक मामलों का लगभग 50 प्रतिशत था.

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  2. http://www.bbc.co.uk/hindi/news/2011/10/111029_polio_eradication_ss.shtml

    दुनिया भर के केवल चार देश ऐसे है जिसमें अभी भी पोलियो एक गंभीर समस्या बना हुई है.

    इन देशों में भारत, पाकिस्तान, नाइजीरिया और अफ़ग़ानिस्तान शामिल हैं.

    पोलियो एक ऐसी बीमारी है जिससे पीड़ित अपंग हो जाता है.

    ऑस्ट्रेलिया की प्रधानमंत्री जूलिया गिलार्ड ने कहा, "इस सहायता राशि से सकारात्मक नतीजे सामने आएंगे. इससे टीका खरीदने, निगरानी गतिविधियां चलाने में मदद मिलेगी और ये जिंदगी बचाने के लिए एक निवेश होगा."

    पोलियो को 99 फीसदी तक ख़त्म किया जा चुका है और अब ये देश मिलकर इसे पूरी तरह समाप्त करने का संकल्प कर रहे हैं.

    ब्रिटेन के प्रधानमंत्री डेविड कैमरन ने कहा,"आज 80 लाख लोग ऐसे है जो पोलियो टीके की वज़ह से चल पा रहे हैं नहीं तो ये अपंग हो जाते, लेकिन इस प्रगति से काम ख़त्म नहीं होता और इस बीमारी के एक भी जीवाणु को छोड़ देना ठीक नहीं होगा."

    जिन देशों में पोलियो है वहाँ ऐसे मामले तो कम हैं लेकिन ये बीमारी संक्रामक होती है और दोबारा आ सकती है.

    दुनिया भर में पोलियो को ख़त्म करने का अभियान 1988 से चल रहा है.

    संयुक्त राष्ट्र और अन्य एजेंसियां पहले से ही इस बीमारी को ख़त्म करने का अभियान छेड़े हुए हैं और अब राष्ट्रमंडल देशों के नेताओं ने भी साल 2013 तक पोलियो को जड़ से ख़त्म करने का लक्ष्य निर्धारित किया है.

    ReplyDelete
  3. http://zeenews.india.com/hindi/news/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%B6/2014-%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%95-%E0%A4%AD%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A4-%E0%A4%B9%E0%A5%8B-%E0%A4%9C%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%8F%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%BE-%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8B-%E0%A4%AE%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4/151182

    पोलियो उन्मूलन में अप्रत्याशित प्रगति करने वाला भारत 2014 तक पोलियो मुक्त बनने के लिये कमर कस रहा है। नियमित टीकाकरण के जरिये भारत पड़ोसी मुल्कों से पोलियो विषाणु के प्रवेश से सुरक्षा का प्रयास कर रहा है। इस साल की शुरुआत में विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन ने भारत को पोलिये प्रभावित देशों की सूची से हटा लिया था। अगर 2014 तक कोई नया मामला सामने नहीं आता है तो भारत पोलियो मुक्त घोषित हो जायेगा।

    स्वास्थ्य एवं परिवार कल्याण मंत्रालय के उपायुक्त डॉ-अजय खेरा ने बताया, जब तक दुनिया भर में पोलियो विषाणु का संक्रमण चलता रहेगा, पोलियो का खतरा बना रहेगा। उन्होंने कहा कि दुनिया में पोलियो प्रभावित देशों में पाकिस्तान, अफगानिस्तान और नाईजीरिया का नाम है जिनमें से दो देश भारत के करीब हैं।

    ReplyDelete
  4. http://www.dw.de/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8B%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%AF%E0%A5%8B-%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%B0-%E0%A4%AC%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%B2-%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%B9%E0%A4%BE-%E0%A4%B9%E0%A5%88-%E0%A4%AA%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B8%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A8%E0%A5%80-%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A8/a-16325071

    पाकिस्तान, अफगानिस्तान और नाइजीरिया दुनिया में तीन ऐसे देश हैं जहां पोलियो की महामारी अभी भी लोगों को अपनी चपेट में ले रही है. इस साल सरकारी आंकड़ों के मुताबिक पाकिस्तान में पोलियो के 30 मामले सामने आए हैं. इनमें से 22 मामले अफगानिस्तान से लगती सीमा पर बसे कबायली इलाके में सामने आए. 1994 में इस महामारी ने 25000 लोगों को अपना शिकार बनाया तब पहली बार यहां पोलियो से मुक्ति के लिए अभियान शुरू किया गया. 2011 में यह संख्या घट कर 198 पर आ गई लेकिन अब भी यह पूरी दुनिया में सबसे ज्यादा है.

    पाकिस्तान की मस्जिदों से मौलवी माइक पर चीख चीख कर लोगों से पोलियो का टीका नहीं लगवाने की अपील करते रहे. कट्टरपंथी मौलवी इसे मुस्लिम समुदाय की आबादी घटाने के लिए पश्चिमी देशों की 'साजिश' करार देते हैं. इसी साल के शुरूआत में पाकिस्तानी डॉक्टर को जेल में डाल दिया गया. इस डॉक्टर पर हेपेटाइटिस का टीका लगाने के नाम पर फर्जी अभियान चला कर अल कायदा प्रमुख ओसामा बिन लादने को पकड़ने में सीआईए की मदद करे का आरोप लगाया गया है. इसके बाद से तालिबान ने कुछ इलाकों में टीका लगवाने पर पूरी तरह से पाबंदी लगा दी है.

    ReplyDelete

  5. http://khabar.ibnlive.in.com/news/67802/1

    नई दिल्ली। पोलिया के खिलाफ लड़ाई में भारत को बड़ी जीत हासिल हुई है। भारत अब पोलियो मुक्त देश हो गया है। डब्ल्यूएचओ यानी विश्व स्वास्थ्य संगठन ने भारत को पोलियो मुक्त देश घोषित कर दिया है।
    दिल्ली में आयोजित पोलियो सम्मेलन में स्वास्थ्य मंत्री गुलाम नबी आजाद ने इसका ऐलान किया। आजाद ने कहा बीते साल एक भी पोलियो का मामला सामने नहीं आना हमारे लिए बड़े संतोष की बात है।
    यद्यपि विशेषज्ञों का मानना है कि अभी भी पोलियो के खिलाफ सतर्कता बरतने की जरूरत है। 5 वर्ष तक के बच्चों को अपना शिकार बनाने वाले इस वायरस के कहर से बच्चे लकवाग्रस्त हो जाते हैं। मालूम हो कि कि साल 2009 में दुनिया भर में पोलियो के जितने मामले आए, उसके लगभग आधे यानी 741 पोलियो के मामले भारत में हुए थे। भारत ने पल्स पोलियो कार्यक्रम पर 12,000 करोड़ रुपए से ज्यादा रकम खर्च की है। जनवरी 2010 में बाईवेलन्ट पोलियो वैक्सीन का इस्तेमाल शुरू किया गया। दुनियाभर में इस वेक्सीन की कमी के बावजूद भारत ने घरेलू बाजार से ही सही समय पर यह दवा प्राप्त की।

    गौरतलब है कि भारत में पोलियो का पिछला मामला 13 जनवरी 2011 को दर्ज किया गया था। पोलियो के 2010 में 42 मामले और 2009 में 741 मामले दर्ज किए गए थे।

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  6. http://www.npspindia.org/Polio11.asp

    Vaccine Derived Polioviruses
     
    Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) are extremely rare and occur in children with immunodeficiency or in populations with low levels of immunity.

    A VDPV type 2 case has been confirmed in a five-month old child in Lalbagh block of Murshidabad district of West Bengal. Detailed follow-up investigations are being carried out. Preliminary reports indicate that the child was admitted toa hospital recently and has had repeated episodes of infection during the past months indicating the possibility of immunodeficiency. However, this can be confirmed only after a full investigation has been completed.

    This is the only VDPV case detected in India in 2012 (data as on 2 March 2012).
    In 2011 India reported seven cases of VDPVs - one of them in a child with congenital immune deficiency in Dhamtari district in Chhattisgarh, and the others in areas with low routine immunization coverage - Udaipur (Rajasthan), Ghaziabad and Badaun (Uttar Pradesh), Barnala (Punjab), Vidisha (Madhya Pradesh) and Jajpur (Orissa).  
    None of the VDPVs detected in India during the past 2 years have shown evidence of circulation. None of the VDPV strains detected in India during 2010 and 2011 are genetically linked to each other.

    In response to the VDPV cases, state and district authorities have conducted catch up routine vaccination and localized polio vaccination campaigns. These measures taken by the state governments have prevented circulation of VDPVs around cases detected during 2010 and 2011.    
     
    Some of the type 2 VDPVs detected in India in 2009 had begun to circulate in western Uttar Pradesh but were rapidly eliminated with a couple of high quality immunization rounds with the trivalent OPV. This is consistent with the global experience that shows that circulating VDPVs can be rapidly stopped, with 2-3 rounds of high-quality immunization rounds. The response strategies for stopping wild poliovirus and VDPVs are the same - immunize every child under the age of five years with oral polio vaccine.
     
    The most important strategy for prevention of emergence of VDPVs, however, is achieving and maintaining high routine immunization coverage with at least three doses of tOPV among infants.
     
    In the current situation of polio eradication, an importation of wild poliovirus remains the larger threat to the children in India. OPV is a very safe and effective vaccine that is protecting millions of children from paralysis caused by outbreaks of wild poliovirus.  OPV has reduced the polio incidence globally by >99% and has brought India to the verge of polio eradication, with the country being removed from the list of polio endemic countries after completing a year without reporting any case due to wild poliovirus.
     
    India’s polio surveillance programme is geared to detect VDPVs as part of AFP surveillance system. The laboratories in India regularly screen vaccine viruses for VDPVs.

    The Government of India is in the process of setting up a group of experts to work on the polio end game strategy for India – which, while ensuring eradication of wild poliovirus, will also ensure that the risk of emergence and circulation of VDPVs is minimized.
     
     



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  7. http://www.npspindia.org/Polio11.asp

    Questions and Answers on VDPV cases:
     
    Q) What is a vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV)?
     
    Vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) are rare but well-documented strains of poliovirus. VDPVs are strains of poliovirus which emerge after prolonged multiplication of attenuated strains of the virus contained in the oral polio vaccine (OPV) in the guts of children with immunodeficiency or in populations with very low immunity. After prolonged multiplication, these vaccine virus derived strains change and revert to a form that can cause paralysis in humans. Some VDPVs have shown a capacity for sustained circulation in communities.
     
    Q) What are the types of VDPVs?
    iVDPVs (immunodeficiency related vaccine-derived poliovirus) isolated from immunodeficient patients who have prolonged infections after exposure to OPV;
     
    cVDPVs (circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses) that are associated with sustained person-to-person transmission and considered to be circulating in the community   under conditions of low population immunity;
     
    aVDPVs (ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus) are VDPVs with a currently unclassifiable source (ie a single isolate from a healthy or non-immunodeficient person; environmental isolate without an associated AFP case).
     
    Q) Why does this happen?

    a.Low routine immunization coverage with tOPV, the vaccine which produces immunity against type 2 poliovirus also

    b.Eradication of wild poliovirus type 2, ten years ago which is no longer circulating to provide natural immunity in the population
    c.Use of the more effective type specific monovalent oral polio vaccines – mOPV1/mOPV3 and now bivalent vaccine in pulse polio campaign rounds in recent years.
    Q) Does VDPV Type 2 mean that wild poliovirus type 2 has not been eradicated?
     
    VDPV type 2 is NOT wild poliovirus type 2 which was eradicated in 1999.
     
    Q) How can a VDPV circulation be stopped?
     
    The management of VDPVs is a necessary part of the global polio eradication effort, and is similar to management of wild poliovirus outbreaks; i.e. by rapid implementation of high-quality SIAs.  Global experience with VDPVs shows that they are less virulent than wild poliovirus strains, and can be rapidly stopped, with 2-3 rounds of high-quality, large-scale SIAs
     
    Q) What is being done in response to the VDPV cases in India?
     
    As per global norms following VDPV detection, the Government of India has initiated: 
    full investigation to determine the immunological and clinical status of each case, and implement any necessary follow up and laboratory investigations
    efforts to determine if transmission of the VDPV has occurred in the community;
    assessment of population immunity in the immediate vicinity of the detected VDPV; and,
    catch up routine immunization and if indicated, supplementary and mop-up immunization rounds using trivalent OPV in the affected area
     
    Q) Is OPV safe?

    OPV is extremely safe and effective at protecting children against lifelong polio paralysis.
     
    OPV is still and has always been the safest and most effective way to protect children from polio. OPV has been the vaccine of choice for over 195 countries that have successfully eradicated polio. It remains the Global Polio Eradication Initiative's recommended vaccine of choice to finish global eradication  More than 10 billion doses of OPV have been given to more than 2 billion children in the past ten years.

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  8. Wednesday, October 24, 2012 12:1:49 GMT
    INDIA
    Wall Street Journal

    http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2012/10/24/building-on-indias-success-on-polio/

    More than 26 million children were born in India last year, many of them in remote parts of the country or in areas of poverty, poor sanitation and weak infrastructure.

    Yet, nearly every one of these children received vaccines that protected them against polio.

    Today, on World Polio Day, we recognize India’s achievement. The country has not seen a case of polio in more than 18 months. This is a tremendous blow against a disease that has crippled and killed countless Indian children. India’s success is one of the biggest public health achievements in recent history. It has brought us closer than ever to eradicating the disease. There are now only three countries where natural polio transmission continues: Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria.

    India’s success against polio is a model of remarkable progress against all odds. It shows that even in the toughest circumstances—despite poverty, high birth rates, a large population and hard-to-reach migrant communities—polio can be defeated. It also provides a lesson that overcoming polio can pave the way to reach nearly every child with immunizations and protect them against other vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Political commitment has been critical to India’s achievement. In 2009, when India had the highest number of polio cases in the world, the polio program implemented an aggressive strategy to target highest-risk populations, which was supported by all levels of government. India has also contributed significant financial resources to end polio: by 2013, the government will have invested $2 billion to defeat polio, supplemented by assistance from external partners. The program has ensured that more than 170 million children are vaccinated in two national polio immunization campaigns each year.

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  9. To reach nearly every child with polio vaccines, India used innovative strategies. India has implemented a system to track newborns to ensure they are reached with polio vaccines and other health interventions. Health workers have worked tirelessly to vaccinate children wherever they were— around brick kilns, on trains and boats and on the Pakistani border. The government has partnered with traditional and religious leaders to convince parents to have their children vaccinated, and social mobilizers have effectively delivered these messages across the country.

    India can now apply the lessons learnt from the polio eradication effort to effectively provide routine immunizations to all, including children who live in remote areas beyond the reach of adequate healthcare facilities. Nomadic families are among the most challenging populations to reach. By using local community workers and mapping technology, India’s polio program identified nomadic settlements in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh and was able to reach these communities not just with polio vaccines, but with routine immunizations that protect against a range of diseases.

    India’s polio program has built a robust surveillance network consisting of 33,700 reporting sites, an army of 2.5 million vaccinators that are deployed during national immunization days, and effective strategies to vaccinate children in the country’s farthest reaches. The program also manages measles immunization campaigns and surveillance for other diseases, and delivers other health services to children.

    Reaching this polio milestone provides a tremendous opportunity for India to strengthen its routine immunization and ensure that every child is protected from vaccine-preventable diseases.

    Vaccines are cost-effective tools that can save lives and India is the world’s largest producer of these powerful low-cost vaccines. Yet, nineteen million children in developing countries, including in India, still do not receive life-saving vaccines that parents in wealthy nations take for granted, such as immunizations to protect against severe diarrhea and pneumococcal disease.

    On World Polio Day, it is important to recognize India’s impressive achievement on polio. It provides a model for Nigeria, Pakistan and Afghanistan to stop the disease. And it demonstrates that with sufficient political commitment and funding, India and other countries can provide life-saving vaccines to all children who need them, wherever they are.

    Seth Berkley, M.D., is a global advocate on the power of vaccines and CEO of the GAVI Alliance, a public-private partnership that focuses on promoting vaccination for children. GAVI last year worked with the Indian government to roll out vaccines to protect children against five life-threatening diseases in one shot. A medical epidemiologist by training, Dr. Berkley is also the founder and former President and CEO of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.

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